Causes Of Brain Drain And Possible Solutions
Brain drain can be defined as the loss of academics and technological human resources to a more favorable geographical, economic or professional environment. It can be described as a way a country loss her most educated and talented workers (especially scientists and technical workers) to other countries where conditions are more favorable or life being more secured through migration. This movement mostly occurs from developing to developed countries.
This phenomenon is considered an economic problem because highly skilled and competent individuals leave their countries of origin and practice their expertise in other countries and this enhance the economic growth of the host country. The country they left on the other hand suffers economic hardship as the people remaining there do not have the wherewithal to make a difference.
Nigeria in particular is a victim of brain drain, a problem the government is yet to acknowledge until its squabbling politicians wake up to the fact that this world is a global village where every serious nation attracts the best of brain from all corners of the world. From one part of the world to another, the migration of Nigerian talents across national boundaries in search of greener pasture is a continuum. Most of the best medical doctors working overseas are Nigerians. Yet Nigerian hospitals are expanding their morgues.
Causes Of Brain Drain
There are various causes of brain drain, they can be categorized into push factors and pull factors. The push factors include all the negative characteristics of the home country which tends to push youths out of developing countries. They are unemployment, political instability, absence of research facilities, employment discrimination, economic under development, lack of freedom and poor working conditions. Etc.
Another salient factor is the increase in the rate of corruption, kidnapping and assassination in developing countries such as ours.
Pull factors on the other hand are the positive characteristics of developed countries from which the migrants intends to benefit. These include higher payment jobs, better quality of life, the prestige of foreign training, a relative stable political environment, a modernized educational system, a superior economic outlook. Etc.
Possible Solution To Brain Drain
To manage/avoid brain drain, we must do the followings:
> Provide job opportunities to people irrespective of their tribes or religion.
> Improve the quality of our universities and bring them up to standard with universities in developed countries like Europe and America.
> Ensure equity and fairness in promoting people based on merit alone.
> Do away with quota system which admits less qualified people to sensitive positions.
> Provide attractive salaries to highly qualified personnel on the basis of their qualifications and experience.
In conclusion, this write up is a clarion call on all concerned citizens of Nigeria and its government to ensure we fight this ugly phenomenon to the barest minimum.