Although the exact origins of pigs are not well defined, these pigs possibly originated from European wild boar (Sus scrofa). Their short legs and powerful tusk with cartilagenous disc in the snout are well suited for feeding and rooting. Breeds of pigs are Indigenous breed, Large white, Landrace, Duroc. Others are Yorkshire, Berkshire, Hampshire etc.
Economic importance of raising pigs
They are sources of manure used to stimulate microbial / plant growth in feeding fresh water fish in ponds and used as organic fertilizer.
They are highly prolific, mature rapidly and produce large litter.
They help in the production of useful products like hair used as bristles in brushes; skin tanned leather, blood as food or feed.
Generation of methane gas from their manure.
It is useful in medical and nutritional studies.
Management practices in pigs
These entails the various activities carried out in the piggery section ranging from the routine to the occasional practices. They are outlined below:
Routine practices: they are the set of activities carried out regularly to ensure the growth of the animals. They are; 1) Inspection: the first thing that should be done in the morning in a typical pig farm is to check the vigour and the overall body condition of the pigs for abnormal behavior and sickness or impending illness and also to observe pigs on heat and servicing.
Cleaning: they should be given water before sweeping and washing. Sweeping and washing of pen should be done using water and disinfectant like Moriguard etc. Disinfectant is basically used to reduce the actions of pathogenic organisms in the pen and also to reduce the foul odour emanating from the pen.
Feeding: the pigs should be fed with a compounded feed which consist of palm kernel cake, corn, brewery dried grain, premix, iodized salt, oyster shell, limestone, roasted soybean and water. The young ones should be slop-fed i.e. their feeds should be mixed together with water as this is necessary to increase palatability, acceptability, reduce feed wastage and dust particles particularly, the matured ones can be given dry feed. They can also be given waterleaf, water hyacinth (a highly invasive aquatic plant which has a considerable amount of crude protein) to supplement their feed. Water should be given concurrently. Note: Soyabean should be roasted before being fed to pig. It should be prevented from burning up as this may cause total denaturation. The aim of roasting soybean is to reduce the anti-nutritional factors such as phytohaemagluttin, chymotrypsin and other trypsin inhibiting factors thereby increasing the use of the energy and protein it contains, also to enhance their digestibility.
Occasional practices: these set of practices are only carried out on an infrequent basis. They are;
Deworming: the body of pigs is a reservoir for worms therefore it is important to deworm the pigs at 3 months interval. Examples of drug used for deworming is Evermet 1% (an injectable solution which contains 10mg Ivermectin per ml) used against endo and ecto parasites. The route of administration should be intravenous.
Castration: There a number of castration methods. They are;
Surgical castration: it involves the removal of the testes or the hanging-up of testicular functions. On the average, pigs are usually castrated when they are between the age of 4-21 days. The pigs to be castrated should be chosen and placed on a broad wooden table. They should be made to lay on their backs and anaesthetics should be administered directly on the scrotum to render the cells temporarily dormant, after which an incision can be made on their scrotal sacs using a surgical blade and the scrotums can then be forced out using hands. The incision area should be cleaned using wool soaked in methylated spirit. Multivitamin should then be given to the pig as anti-stress and antibiotics should also be given subcutaneously to aid the process of healing up.
Other methods are the use of Burdizzo pincer, also the use of rubber elastrator
Completely enclosed environmentally controlled units should be developed where pigs will spend much of their time indoors. However, under all conditions, pigs require shelter that provides airy bedding area and good ventilation. During hot humid weather, pigs need shelter from direct sunlight and a wallow. The floor, feeding and drinking spaces should be adequate and generally clean.
General care for pigs:
Always buy your stock from a pedigree and disease-free herd.
Feed adequate balanced ration to the growing pigs, finishers and breeding stock.
Deworm the herd every quarter.
Vaccinate the pigs every year against diseases for which vaccines are available.
Provide adequate shade and shelter and ample water especially during the summer season.
Common drugs used in treating various ailments in pig productions are;
Mericyl injection: it is a tonic restorative stimulant used for the treatment of anaemia, weakness, nutritional disorder and debility. It should be administered subcutaneously with Vitamin B complex to make it more active.
VTS PEN STREP: an injectable solution for the treatment of alimentary tract and respiratory infections.
Vermicure plus: for the treatment of gastro intestinal tract and lung worm infections
Ni-oxy (oxytetracycline dihydrate): an injectable solution used as antibiotics.
Diminazene aceturate is also used in the treatment of swine trypanosomiasis
Piggery is one of the lucrative business people didn't concentrate on. The only problem I'm having in engaging in piggery is because of my religion, Islam forbids it's practices of any form, ranging from rearing, selling, buying and eating. If not for that I would have ventured into piggery.
I totally agree with you on this one, piggery is a very lucrative and profitable business,that could earn a person alot of money, though there may be ups and downs in the business because pigs are known to be very dirty and can could contact any disease,but with adequate maintenance, you will surely succeed